Views: 1 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-07-27 Origin: Site
1. Chemical analysis and instrumental analysis
Acetonitrile is an organic modifier and solvent used in thin layer chromatography, paper chromatography, spectroscopy and polarographic analysis in recent years. Since high-purity acetonitrile does not absorb ultraviolet light at 200nm ~ 400nm, an application being developed is as a solvent for HPLC, which can make the analytical sensitivity as high as 10-9 levels.
2. Hydrocarbon extraction separation solvent
Acetonitrile is a widely used solvent, mainly used as the solvent of extractive distillation to separate butadiene from C4 hydrocarbons. Acetonitrile is also used for the separation of other hydrocarbons, such as propylene, isoprene and methylacetylene from hydrocarbon fractions. Acetonitrile is also used for some special separation, such as the extraction and separation of fatty acids from vegetable oil and cod liver oil, so that the treated oil is light, pure, and has improved odor, while the vitamin content remains unchanged. Acetonitrile is also widely used as solvent in the pharmaceutical, pesticide, textile and plastic sectors. 
3. Intermediates of synthetic medicine and pesticides
Acetonitrile can be used to synthesize intermediates of various medicines and pesticides. In medicine, it is used to synthesize a series of important pharmaceutical intermediates such as vitamin B1, metronidazole, ethambutol, aminopteridine, adenine and antitussive; In pesticides, it is used to synthesize pyrethroid insecticides and pesticide intermediates such as acetamivir.
4. Semiconductor cleaning agent
Acetonitrile is an organic solvent with strong polarity. It has good solubility in grease, inorganic salts, organics and polymer compounds. It can clean grease, wax, fingerprints, corrosive agents and flux residues on silicon chips. Therefore, high purity acetonitrile can be used as semiconductor cleaner.
5. Other applications
In addition to the above applications, acetonitrile can also be used as raw material for organic synthesis, catalyst or component of transition metal complex catalyst. In addition, acetonitrile is also used in fabric dyeing and paint blends, and it is also an effective stabilizer for chlorinated solvents.
1. Acute toxicity
Ld50:2460mg/kg (rat oral); 1250mg/kg (rabbit percutaneous)
Lc50:7551ppm (inhalation in rats, 8h)
Rabbit transcutaneous: 500mg, mild stimulation (open stimulation test)
3. Subacute and chronic toxicity
The cat inhaled 7mg/m3 of its vapor for 4 hours a day for 6 months. One month after exposure, the conditioned reflex began to break. Pathological examination showed pathological changes of liver, kidney and lung.
Sex chromosome deletion and non segregation: Saccharomyces cerevisiae 47600ppm. Sister chromatid exchange: hamster ovary 5g/l.
Hamsters inhaled a minimum toxic dose (tclo) of 5000ppm (1H) 8 days after pregnancy, causing central nervous system development abnormalities.
The lowest toxic dose (tclo) of 8000ppm (1H) was inhaled by hamsters on the 8th day after pregnancy, resulting in the development of musculoskeletal system.
6. Other toxicity
The lowest oral toxic dose (tdlo) of hamsters: 300mg/kg (8D pregnant), causing abnormal musculoskeletal development.
Lc50:1640mg/l (96h) (black headed minnow)
Aerobic biodegradability: 168~672h
Anaerobic biodegradability: 672~2688h
9. Non biodegradable
Photooxidation half-life in water: 2.80 × 106~1.10 × 108h
Half life of photooxidation in air: 1299~12991h
Half life of primary hydrolysis: > 150000ah