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Formic acid's preparation method

Views: 3     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-08-10      Origin: Site

Preparation method of formic acid

Laboratory method

Oxalic acid was obtained by heating in anhydrous glycerol and then steam distillation.

Or hydrolyzing isoacetonitrile under the action of hydrochloric acid to obtain:

Industrial method

1. Sodium formate method: carbon monoxide and sodium hydroxide solution react at 160-200 ℃ and 2 MPa pressure to form sodium formate, and then the finished product is obtained by sulfuric acid hydrolysis and distillation.

2. Methanol carbonylation method (also known as methyl formate method): methanol and carbon monoxide react in the presence of catalyst sodium methoxide to form methyl formate, and then hydrolyze to form formic acid and methanol. Methanol can be recycled into the methyl formate reactor, and formic acid can be rectified to obtain products of different specifications.

3. Formamide method: carbon monoxide and ammonia react in methanol solution to form formamide, which is then hydrolyzed to formic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, and ammonium sulfate is a by-product. Raw material consumption quota: methanol 31 kg / T, carbon monoxide 702 kg / T, ammonia 314 kg / T, sulfuric acid 1010 kg / T.

4. Industrial grade formic acid was prepared by the reaction of sodium formate and concentrated sulfuric acid, and then the pure product was prepared by vacuum distillation after adsorption with activated carbon.

5. Carbon dioxide method: it is obtained by reacting carbon dioxide with hydrogen at 140-160 ℃ in triethylamine aqueous solution under the catalysis of palladium complex.

Refining methodChina Formic Acid - YuanfarChemicals

1. Anhydrous formic acid can be obtained by direct fractionation under reduced pressure. During fractionation, it is cooled and condensed with ice water. For aqueous formic acid, anhydrous copper sulfate can be used as desiccant. For 88% formic acid of reagent grade, the water in it can be removed by distillation after refluxing phthalic anhydride for 6 hours. Further purification can be achieved by fractional crystallization. When formic acid and acetic acid are mixed together, aliphatic hydrocarbon can be added for azeotropic distillation separation.

2. Mix formic acid and phosphorus pentoxide, conduct vacuum distillation and repeat for 5-10 times to obtain anhydrous formic acid, but the yield is low, time-consuming and will cause some decomposition. The distillation of formic acid and boric acid is simple and effective. The boric acid is dehydrated at high temperature in a shaker until no bubbles are generated. The obtained melt is poured onto the iron sheet, cooled in a dryer, and then ground into powder. Add boric acid phenol fine powder to formic acid, place it for several days to form a hard block, separate the clear liquid for vacuum distillation, and collect 22-25 ℃ / 12-18 mm fraction as the product. The distiller shall be equipped with full grinding joint and protected by drying pipe.

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