Views: 6 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-06-24 Origin: Site
Tritium can be obtained by placing the isotope (6Li) with mass number 6 in an atomic reactor and irradiating it with neutrons. Tritium can be used in thermonuclear reactions and has important applications. Lithium is mainly used as thickener of lubricating grease in the form of lithium stearate. This lubricant has high water resistance, high temperature resistance and good low temperature performance. Lithium compounds are used in ceramic products as cosolvent. It is also used as deoxidizer or dechlorinating agent in metallurgical industry and lead base bearing alloy. Lithium is also an important component of beryllium, magnesium and aluminum light alloys.
Lithium is closely related to daily life. Lithium ion batteries used in personal laptop computers, mobile phones, Bluetooth headsets and other digital products contain rich lithium elements. Lithium ion battery is a high-energy storage medium. Due to the rapid development of lithium ion battery, the business of lithium ore, lithium carbonate and other companies has developed vigorously. Lithium metal batteries are also used in military fields.
Lithium has been neglected for quite a long time after its discovery. Only a few lithium compounds have been used in glass, ceramics and lubricants.
The main industrial use of lithium in the past was as thickener of lubricant in the form of lithium stearate. Lithium based grease has high water resistance, high temperature resistance and good low temperature performance. If you add lithium lubricant to some parts of the car once, it will be enough until the car is scrapped.
In metallurgical industry, lithium can react strongly with oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, sulfur and other substances to act as deoxidizer and desulfurizer. In the process of copper smelting, adding 1 / 100000 to 1 / 10000 lithium can improve the internal structure of copper, make it more compact, and improve the conductivity of copper. Lithium can remove harmful impurities and gases from high-quality copper castings. Lithium is the most ideal material for removing impurities in modern high-quality special alloy steels.
1kg lithium can release 42998kj of heat after combustion, so lithium is one of the best metals used as rocket fuel. The energy released by 1kg lithium through thermonuclear reaction is equivalent to the combustion of more than 20000 tons of high-quality coal. If lithium or lithium compounds are used to make solid fuels instead of solid propellants as the driving force of rockets, missiles and spacecraft, it will not only have high energy, high burning rate, but also have very high specific impulse. The rocket payload directly depends on the specific impulse.
If lithium is added to glass manufacturing, the solubility of Lithium glass is only 1/100 of that of ordinary glass (about one ten thousandth of a gram of glass in each ordinary glass of hot tea). After lithium is added, the glass becomes "insoluble" and can resist acid corrosion.
Pure aluminum is too soft. When a small amount of lithium, magnesium, beryllium and other metals are added to aluminum to melt into an alloy, it is light and especially hard. Using this alloy to make an aircraft can reduce the weight of the aircraft by 2/3. A lithium aircraft can be carried away by two people. Lithium lead alloy is a good antifriction material.
It was after the discovery of its excellent nuclear properties that lithium really became a world-renowned metal. Because of its unique properties in the atomic energy industry, it is called "high energy metal".
Lithium battery is a high-quality energy developed in the 1930s and 1940s. It has been widely used in various fields and is a promising power battery because of its high open circuit voltage, high specific energy, wide operating temperature range, discharge balance, self discharge electrons and other advantages. Using lithium battery to power a car, the driving cost is only 1/3 of that of an ordinary gasoline engine car. Tritium is produced from lithium, which is used to start the atomic battery pack. There is no need to charge it in the middle, and it can work continuously for 20 years. One of the important ways to solve the automobile oil crisis and exhaust pollution is to develop new batteries such as lithium batteries.
One of the early important uses of lithium compounds was in ceramic products, especially in enamel products. The main function of lithium compounds was as a flux.
Lithium fluoride is extremely transparent to ultraviolet light. The glass made from it can penetrate the deepest mysteries hidden in the Milky Way galaxy. Lithium glass can be used to make TV picture tubes.
During World War II, American pilots were equipped with a portable emergency hydrogen source - lithium hydride pills. When an aircraft crashes and falls to the water surface, lithium hydride will dissolve and release a large amount of hydrogen as soon as it touches the water, so as to inflate the life-saving equipment
Lithium deuteride and lithium tritide are used to replace deuterium and tritium in hydrogen bomb as explosives to achieve the purpose of hydrogen bomb explosion. The first hydrogen bomb that China successfully exploded on june17,1967 was lithium deuteride.
Lithium borohydride and lithium aluminum hydride are widely used as reducing agents in organic chemical reactions. Lithium borohydride can reduce aldehydes, ketones and esters. Lithium aluminum hydride is an important reducing agent in the preparation of drugs, spices and fine organic chemicals. Lithium aluminum hydride can also be used as jet fuel. Lithium aluminum hydride is a strong reducing agent for special bonding of complex molecules. This reagent has become an important reagent in many organic synthesis.
Organic lithium compounds react with organic acids to obtain addition products that can be hydrolyzed to ketones. This reaction is used in the synthesis of vitamin A. Organic lithium compounds are added to aldehydes and ketones to obtain addition products that can produce alcohols during hydrolysis.
The amino lithium prepared by the reaction of lithium with ammonia is used to introduce amino groups, and is also used as dehalogenation reagent and catalyst.
Lithium can improve hematopoietic function and improve human immune function. Lithium can regulate the activities of the central nervous system, calm the nerves and control nervous disorders. Lithium can replace sodium and prevent cardiovascular diseases. The daily intake of lithium is about 0.1mg.
Biological necessity and health effects of lithium. Lithium is an effective mood stabilizer. With the emergence of new mood stabilizers, although the interest and Research on lithium therapy have decreased, lithium is still the most effective measure for the preventive management of acute mania and manic depressive disorder. Many studies have proved that lithium has essential functions or beneficial effects on animals and humans. Lithium deficiency in animals can lead to shortened life span, reproductive abnormalities, behavioral changes and other abnormalities. Human epidemiological studies show that the concentration of lithium in drinking water is significantly negatively correlated with psychiatric hospitalization rate, homicide, suicide, robbery, violent crime and drug-related crime rate. Studies on nutritional lithium supplementation of drug offenders have proved that lithium can improve and stabilize mood. The content of lithium in hair of heart patients, learning disabilities and violent prisoners in custody decreased significantly. The clinical study of lithium carbonate treatment shows that the main reaction organs of lithium are gastrointestinal tract, kidney, nerve, muscle, endocrine and cardiovascular system. Within the therapeutic dose range of 170 ~ 228 mg li/d, the expected serum lithium level is 0.4 ~ 0.8 meq/l (2.78 ~ 5.55 mg/l), which is non-toxic. In the risk assessment of lithium, the use of 10 times the safety factor for the therapeutic dose will not cause harm to pregnant women and fetuses, which is equivalent to the daily intake of 2mg Li by adults. The NOAEL (non-toxic water) of animals is 10 mg li/kg/d. Using 32 times of safety factor, the allowable daily intake (ADI) is 0.31 mg li/kg/d. Based on animal experimental data, the apparent deficiency intake of lithium is: goat: <1.5mgli/kg, rat: <15 μ gLi/kg。 The dietary requirement for lithium is about 60 ~ 100 μ G/d, the typical daily intake is 200 ~ 600 μ g。 Eggs, milk, dairy products, fish, potatoes and vegetables are rich in lithium.
Storage method of lithium
Like potassium and sodium, lithium is very active and needs to be stored in isolation from air.
Attention shall be paid to safety during storage and use. Fire caused by metal lithium shall not be extinguished with water or foam extinguishing agent, but with sodium carbonate dry powder. Lithium is also very corrosive to the skin.