Views: 1 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-04-28 Origin: Site
A lithium-ion or lithium-ion battery is a rechargeable battery that uses the reversible reduction of lithium ions to store energy.The anode (negative electrode) of a conventional Li-ion battery is usually graphite made of carbon.The cathode (positive electrode) is usually a metal oxide.The electrolyte is usually a lithium salt in an organic solvent.It is the main type of battery used in portable consumer electronics and electric vehicles.It also plays an important role in grid-scale energy storage, as well as in military and aerospace applications.Compared to other rechargeable battery technologies, lithium-ion batteries have high energy density, low self-discharge and no memory effect (although small memory effects reported in LFP batteries have been traced to poorly manufactured cells).Chemistry, performance, cost and safety characteristics vary by Li-ion battery type. Most commercial lithium-ion batteries use intercalation compounds as active materials.The anode or negative electrode is usually graphite, although silicon-carbon materials are also increasingly used.Batteries can be manufactured to prioritize energy or power density.Most handheld electronic products use lithium polymer batteries (with polymer gel as the electrolyte), lithium cobaltate (LiCoO
1).Cathode material and graphite anode, which together provide high energy density.Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO
2).Llithium manganate (LiMn2O)
3-based lithium-rich layered materials, LMR-NMC) and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNiMnCoO2 or NMC) may offer longer life and may have better rate performance.NMC and its derivatives are widely used in transportation electrification, which is one of the main technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles (combined with renewable energy sources).M.Stanley Whittingham discovered the concept of intercalated electrodes in the 1970s and created the first rechargeable lithium-ion battery based on a titanium disulfide anode and a lithium aluminum cathode, although it had safety concerns and was never commercialized. John Goodenough extended this work in 1980 by using lithium cobaltate as the cathode.The first prototype of a modern lithium-ion battery, using a carbonaceous anode instead of lithium metal, was developed by Akira Yoshino in 1985 and commercialized in 1991 by a Sony and Asahi Kasei team led by Yoshio Nishi.Lithium-ion batteries can be a safety hazard if not properly designed and manufactured because they have a flammable electrolyte that can cause explosions and fires if damaged or improperly charged. Significant progress in safe lithium-ion battery manufacturing.Li-ion all-solid-state batteries are being developed to eliminate flammable electrolytes.Improperly recycled batteries generate toxic waste, especially toxic metals, and pose a fire hazard. Additionally, there are major problems with extraction of lithium and other key strategic minerals used in batteries, lithium requires large amounts of water in often arid regions, and other minerals are often conflict minerals such as cobalt.Both environmental concerns have encouraged some researchers to improve the efficiency of minerals and alternatives such as iron-air batteries.
Research areas of lithium-ion batteries include extending life, increasing energy density, improving safety, reducing cost, and increasing charging speed, etc.Based on the flammability and volatility of organic solvents used in typical electrolytes, research in the field of nonflammable electrolytes has been ongoing as a way to improve safety.Strategies include aqueous lithium-ion batteries, ceramic solid electrolytes, polymer electrolytes, ionic liquids, and heavy fluorine systems.