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Tris buffer is a biological buffer used in biochemistry, microbiology, molecular biology, and pharmacy. Buffers are chemicals that absorb acid or alkali so that the pH of a solution does not change if acid or alkali is added. Tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (CAS 77-86-1) is also known as Tromethamine, Trometamol and Trizma.
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Tris (Hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (CAS 77-86-1) is an organic compound that exhibits buffering properties in aqueous solutions. Its chemical formula is C₄H₁₁NO₃, and its molecular structure consists of a central amino group (NH₂) bonded to three hydroxymethyl groups (CH₂OH). These hydroxymethyl groups grant it a unique ability to act as an effective buffer in in the pH range of 7.2 to 9.0.
Tris buffer is a common reagent in biochemistry, used in DNA purification, protein solubilization, and nucleic acid separation by electrophoresis.
It is used in bacteriology, often in conjunction with inorganic buffers, to allow acid sensitive organisms to grow in multi strain cultures where acid producing organisms are present.
In the pharmaceutical industry, Tris buffer is also widely used as an excipient in injection and infusion solutions, eye drops, creams, and gels, helping to stabilize these products.
Tris can also be used for the treatment of metabolic acidosis and urine alkalinization, in cases where the patient is intoxicated by weakly acidic substances like barbiturates. Its administration is via intravenous injection, as it has a respiratory depressant effect, making its use contraindicated in patients with respiratory insufficiency.
There are different biological buffers which are chosen depending on the required pH working range. Many organic chemicals have buffering properties, such as amino acids, but biological buffers tend to have a greater capacity to counteract the effects of added acid or alkali. Organic buffers are distinct from inorganic buffers, such as phosphate and carbonate buffer.
Temperature, reactivity, toxicity, and concentration are other crucial factors to consider. Temperature can affect a buffer' s buffering capacity, and it is vital to ensure there are no adverse reactions and that the buffer is non-toxic to the test sample. Concentration can also alter the pH level, and it is important to take this into account in experiments.